Test Information Space

Journal of Tech, Testing and Trends

Posts Tagged ‘visualization’


Posted by cadsmith on February 28, 2011

Intel has BIOS implementation test suite. YouEye performs eye-tracking during tests. Aspiritech testers apply Asperger’s. Microsoft uses controlled experiments for business. Landing page tests listed.

Interactive Fabrication does realtime 3D. Hololabs has a 3D augmented reality editor. NMQ has 3D radar mosaic.

Robot subs used for longer term periods. Demolition robot slices concrete. Self-aware robot models body, thoughts and theory of mind. Stochastic robots put themselves together and take others apart. Cheetah-Bot made for pursuit. Robot marathon completed. Segway solowheel is self-balancing. Snakebot reaches heart.

Atomic antennae do quantum transmission on chip. Organic microprocessor announced. Phononic produces advanced thermoelectric devices. Millimeter-scale computer chips are prototyped.

OpenMesh provides internet-less routing. Brain-computer interface does multi-tasking. Swype eases mobile text input. OnSwipe self-publishes for tablets. HelloFax does transmits online. Batteries do self-repair. Solar caps put on landfills.

CapLinked has private investing platform. Seismic Warning Systems alert before earthquakes. Disaster relief model handles chaos. Video monitor automatically detects life jackets.

Book Reviews:

The End of Discovery, Russell Stannard, 2010

This book is about philosophy of science. The argument is that basic science has found things that are fundamentally unknowable. The description of the state-of-the-art is accompanied by questions that show the current limits. The nature of consciousness and free will is brought up initially. Others deal with what things are, their causes, proof, measurement, observations, past occurrences, and how to select between theories. Figures are used to understandably illustrate complex propositions and a few equations. There are thirteen chapters.

The End of the Long Summer, Dianne Dumanoski, 2009

This is a lyrical treatment of many environmental ideas. The basic thesis is that a future based on climate change and global warming cannot be avoided. The ozone hole was a demonstration of industrial civilization’s side-effects and the fact that nature is unpredictable. Humans have learned to dance to the music, however business cannot proceed as usual. Shift is volatile and rapid. The destiny is not set since there are choices. Technofix is a temptation, for example geoengineering, but the proper values include life, resiliency, diversity and survivability in contrast to survivalism. There can be overconnectedness as in hypercoherence. Humanities’ place is on Earth. Conservationists hope that people will be able to still enjoy animals several millennia from now. The best statement may be Carson’s Silent Spring. This is a Massachusetts author. There are nine chapters.

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Chance Favors

Posted by cadsmith on January 2, 2011

Besides augmented to sound, other accessibility tools like Thimble do text to Braille. Photogene provides mobile photo editor. Jama makes requirements management software. VizThink supports visualization. OpenInvo aggregates innovative opportunities. Living earth simulator announced. MSR makes AI Go. Opensource decreed for eastern Europe. There were ten recent links.

Book Review:

Advanced ICTs for Disaster Management and Threat Detection: Collaborative and Distributed Frameworks, EleanaNik AsimakopoulouBessis, 2010
Title is acronym for information and communication technologies. Editors emphasize natural and technical disaster types. There are three phases: preparation, situation, and analysis. Some recent advances include smart-web radio to translate text to voice for dissemination and radio telecontrol to use power distribution lines to network measurement, communication and switches. It also has scenario-based reasoning for conflicting objectives. Topics include crisis management, disaster risk reduction, systemic disaster management system, educational game, disaster media, rapid onset informatics, tool deployment, early warning, med info systems, social media, web2.0, 3d and virtual world models, mathematical models, sensors and computing, and personalized evacuation data. It cites a variety of blogs. If the reader is interested in environmental development as a prevention measure, then additional sources may be required.

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Being Wells

Posted by cadsmith on November 28, 2010


The internet-of-things will use a mobile embedded SIM chip. Notebook apps include Simplenote, Org-Mode and alternatives. Aviary added an HTML5 Photo Editor. Formstack eases editing. Mastermind allows hands-free game play. Search considers serendipity. Feds aim for cloud option. Trusted Secure Computing is presented in Europe. API usage is clarified. Kaggle aggregates datamining competitors. Data Compression is based on a card trick.

The health industry expects more networks, bots, ad artifacts. Biotech reviews ramifications of ID implants. A mobile camera drone has bird’s eye view. Bots rescue the battle-ridden. Communities reevaluate economics. Futurist Bill Gates discusses progress. Nanoparticles have environmental impact. Journalism uses more social media.  Philosophy uses field experiments. AI attends to when computers will take over and Numenta hierarchical temporal memory. Human Enhancement: Bioliberation shown on video.

There were about twenty-eight recent links.

Book Reviews:

Data Analysis with Open Source Tools, Philipp K. Janert, 2010
This book discusses how to make models and mine data. The author provides caveats that that appearances often override data, decision makers use data for support rather than reasoning, ethics outweigh data, and many things cannot be measured yet. Realtime means right this minute rather than up to date. Data is cleaned prior to analysis. There are a couple of dozen software tools discussed. It uses math examples rather than code, for data analysis and calculus, and has a statistics refresher. There are interesting styles of plots. Some case studies are detailed. Each chapter has workshop exercises, an intermezzo for related topics, and further reading. There are four parts, eighteen chapters and three appendices. The reader interested in data filtering might need additional sources beyond the time series presented here.

The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values, Sam Harris, 2010
This book proposes that science can address moral absolutes. If right and good relate to human and animal wll-being, then there are answers. The title is an analogy to a texture that has peaks for well-being and depths for suffering. Mental experience and values can be measured. Facts of the world can be assembled into knowledge. There can then be rational argument that results in the highest amount of well-being. This is an interesting discussion also presented in video lectures. There are five chapters which also include belief, religion and the future of happiness. There is heavy emphasis on topics related to brain science and structures and neuroimaging. The author likens the method to medicine or economics yet, while these are considered sciences, they are subject to significant errors, so there is also a need to understand how to improve the practice of the principles. The reader may also wonder if the brain will be the best processor for these types of decisions. The Monty Hall problem is discussed as a demonstration of the wisdom of switching, but this seems to be neutralized if contestants are split half on one side and half on the other so both would be better off switching.

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To Be Is To Question

Posted by cadsmith on November 7, 2010

IBM personalizes internet. Australia has a digital city. Adobe adds cloud filesharing. Verify gets user feedback on screens. Impure visualizes data. A biological brain navigates a vehicle. In electric cars, a Chevy gets an IP address, and an Urbee is made on printer. Also in 3D, Janus does interactive scanning and holograms do displays. Invisible material disappears. Chip PC is in the plug. Blekko searches selected sites. Gdb does profiling. Sensors warn of landslides. Technoscience combines science and engineering.

Book reviews:

What Technology Wants, Kevin Kelly, 2010
The author seeks the essence of technology as a force the equal of nature. Technology has features such as evolution, complexity, specificity, diversity, and energy dependencies. He introduces the term technium as a form of civilization, an emergent system of accelerated life. Many advancements happen simultaneously in multiple places, e.g. the Axial Age. This is the result of new technologies increasing the odds of successors. There are four parts for fourteen chapters. It is written in an optimistic, mind-expanding style. He covers the ideas of many other authors such as Joel Garreau and W. Brian Arthur. There are twenty-books in the reading list including authors such as Ray Kurzweil and Steward Brand. Though not cited here, there have been efforts to formalize technology’s philosophical roots, theory, and predictions, reviewed earlier on this blog and google books.

Recent links (of about twenty-four):


YouTube – Tom Chatfield: 7 ways video games engage the brain
YouTube – Authors@Google: Alice Walker

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Cell Complex

Posted by cadsmith on October 18, 2010

Usability test sites are listed below. Visualization has Circos tool. Machine learning can automatically read the web and derive laws from data. Biotech do-it-yourself has reached the garage stage. Japan has machines that win at chess, economize both heat and smartgrid, sing like humans, and crawl like snakes. Surveillance has video analytics and privacy concerns. Movies have character makeover. Security has memory hardware ID, Bugat trojan, cyber cold war and first strike alert. Space tourism is less than a couple of years away. Water shortages are prevented by intelligence, startups and solar power. Ebooks have self-publishing, search, blog converter, and writing nook.

Book reviews:

Undercover User Experience Design, Cennydd Bowles and James Box, 2010

This is a comprehensive do-it-yourself description about many facets of the topic. The undercover manifesto values bottom-up change, delivery, timeliness, sociability, and action. There are details about critiques, deliverables, design process and problems, research, usability testing, and UX design. UX adoption begins in web design, and proceeds to check-up, integration, ownership, allies, education, persuasion, trust, stories, skills, and ROI. The content of the book has dynamic highlights, notes appear in side-boxes. It has tips for Agile as well as waterfall design. There are recommendations for using the process with various types of customers including developers, visual designers, content specialists, product owners, marketers, SEO specialists and senior managers. It talks about metrics, A/B testing, common design review pitfalls. Types of test include rapid iterative testing and evaluation, and remote. Tools range from sketching wireframes and storyboards, to apps, to dedicated sites. Research methods include feedback, surveys, and third-parties. Author sites http://www.cennydd.co.uk and twitter.com/boxman.
Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War, Andrew J. Bacevich, 2010

The title simultaneously refers to the beltway, namesake, possible result, and the name of the national security consensus since WWII which is no longer as effective. The sacred trinity now holds that the US needs global presence, power projections and interventionism. The inability to distinguish institutional well-being from that of the nation has led to the present conditions. This affected historical figures such as Allen Dulles, Curtis LeMay and Maxwell Taylor. The author takes issue with the way things have turned out for the US. The arguments are nonpartisan. The return to counterinsurgency demonstrates an abandonment of victory as an objective. The US could revert to the tradition of military for defense and Just War. Americans would see soldiers stationed in the country as citizen-protectors. This frees up resources to restore the economy.

Previous links (from about fifty-four):


Turn Visitors into Customers with Performable.
Easy User Experience research – whatusersdo.com
Webnographer Home
Remote Usability testing, online customer experience research, usability testing software. Userzoom
User Experience | Website Usability Testing and Evaluation
Usability Testing
Treejack :: Optimise your site structure using tree testing.
Remote & Online Usability Testing Tool | Loop11
IntuitionHQ, make website usability testing part of every website project
CommandShift3 – It’s like Hot or Not for web design
Chalkmark :: First impression testing.

astronomy Planet hunters no longer blinded by the light | International Space Fellowship

automotive CarWoo!

climate Old Weather – Our Weather’s Past, the Climate’s Future

community Get Satisfaction | Customer Community Software – Love your Customers.

economics Coming Soon: World Government and Global Currency – Beyond Money

education Next Gen Learning Challenges

invention Dean of Invention : Planet Green – On TV

maps The Web 2.0 Summit Points of Control Map

social Multitude

social-networks MYCUBE

technology Garnter’s Newest Hype Cycle: Discuss

transportation Everyone’s Private Driver / UberCab

windows Windows Live Mesh 2011

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Posted by cadsmith on August 30, 2010


Sustainability issues grow as large urban centers add a million people, or or up to about 5%, per year. Social responses to acts of nature need to be tempered in order to prevent environmental disasters. Demand increases for tech solutions. Automation extends to robotics and space.

Recent links (about 23):

ai “The Age of Assistants”: The View From Inside SRI

augmented-reality “What Mountain is That?” New App Takes AR Outside the City Limits


Database | EM-DAT

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR)

Death to Humans! Visions of the Apocalypse in Movies and Literature: Scientific American

email HOW TO: Undo “Send” in Gmail

emotion EmoRate

events Online Event Registration – Sell Tickets Online with Eventbrite

robotics IEEE Spectrum: Cyborg Fly Pilots Robot Through Obstacle Course

security David Ignatius – Pentagon’s cybersecurity plans have a Cold War chill

smartgrid IEEE Spectrum: $25 Billion European Smart Grid Market by 2020

space BBC News – Alien hunters ‘should look for artificial intelligence’

ui Make: Online : Multitouch robot swarm controller


World’s Fastest-Growing Megalopolis Hides in Fog | Raw File

Reinventing the City to Combat Climate Change

visualization David McCandless: The beauty of data visualization | Video on TED.com

Book reviews:

Urban Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective, Shaw et al, 2009

Urbanization is outpacing general population growth in Asia. Case studies are described for localities and types of environmental disaster. Urban issues range from household, community, city, region, to nation. Lifestyles create hazards which induce, or worsen natural, events. The culture can be built on safety and resilience. Action planning may require assistance of specialized agencies. Pilot cities demonstrate projects such as local resource organization, citizen empowerment, and smaller units and chain of command. Lessons are learned from disaster recovery. A management information system was useful in at least one case. The decision-making pyramid includes global, national, city, building, and individual. Environmental issues include air and water pollution, waste and sewage, noise, land use, drainage and transport congestion, slums, flood and other common issues such as disease, fire, or crime. Strategies are sensitive to survival, peace, innovation from tradition, and sustainability. The disaster management cycle has its own information and communication issues in each phase, non, before, during and after. Risk reduction involves knowledge, perception, deepening, preparedness and dissemination. Surveys measure public awareness. Frameworks are provided by Millennium Development Goal, Hyogo Framework for Action, and UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. There are eighteen chapters, two parts, twenty-four authors.

Disaster Risk Management Systems Analysis: A Guide Book, Baas, 2008

This book has a toolset for the characterization and strengthening of DRM at the international, national, province/district/municipality, community and institution layers. A framework enumerates initiatives for each of the periods for disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery. Preparedness links both development, through mitigation and prevention, and humanitarian assistance, through relief and recovery. Another framework for sustainable livelihoods indicates which households are most vulnerable. There is a list of key questions for leaders. A form is shown to document the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats across levels. There are six modules, two annexes and many figures, relational maps, and checklists. It can be downloaded as a PDF from the web.

Ecological Engineering: Principles and Practices, Patrick C. Kangas, 2004

Humans stress natural ecosystems through simplification of species and metabolic shifts. Research in emergent ecosystems includes agriculture, urban, and coastal or estuarine. Since prediction is limited, engineering epistemology requires building improvement based on design and test. Future directions include ecological nanotech, terraforming, biosensors, ecosensors, universal pollution treatment, and aquaculture. Technoecosystems maintain a balance between living and hardware systems. Since the laboratory includes the environment, the hacker code of ethics applies to ecological engineering. Treatment reduces costs of pollution. Ecological economics adds measures of emergy or embodied energy, natural capital, sustainability, carrying capacity and many types of ecosystem services to improve life-support value. Sold waste management discusses landfills, composting, and industrial ecology. The energy value of the waste is the same as that used to make the product. Wetlands are used for wastewater treatment by spiraling. An identical decay equation for decomposition evolved in parallel, linking design intuitions for both biodegradation in ecology and wastewater engineering. Restoration ecology connects to succession and is explained for salt marshes, artificial reefs, and educational exhibits. Microcosmology includes living models and replication issues. Soil bioengineering is shown for urban imperviousness, stormwater management bioretention and agricultural erosion control. This realm includes beavers, coastal vegetation and self-building machines. Biodiversity is increased by exotic species. The food web describes feeding interactions. The series of multiple states in catastrophe theory is used to explain invasion. Control theory ranges from machine analogies to biotech. Circuit symbols are used for ecosystem models. H T Odum coined a lot of the names of new ecosystems. Principles include energy signature, self-organization and preadaptation. There are nine chapters

Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk, edited by Kreimer et al, 2003

Actual and new types of disasters are discussed, e.g. due to rapid urbanization or climate change. Impact and preparedness affect several geographic scales of security, environmental and human, including economics. politics, and society. There are several major worldviews. The main concerns are globalization, environment, social vulnerability, and protecting infrastructure. The various methods of balancing costs of risks include privatization, government taxation and globalization. Africa often suffers export losses, which leads to tens of thousands of youth mortalities, when other countries have disasters. Hazard reduction involves robust design, flexible and adaptable systems, reversal of vulnerability trends, and societal preparedness. Coastal zone classifications include protect, retreat and accommodate. Resilience measures how much disturbance can be absorbed, and the capability for self-reorganization. Regional analysis, management and action are required for flooding. Study approaches include scenarios and consequences. The fact that life support networks, e.g. utilities, affect eachother as external technological causes has not been taken into account traditionally. Critical infrastructure includes telecom, power, energy, storage, transportation, water, financial, emergency services, and government. Buildings can be retrofit using new tech for earthquakes risk. These were papers for a conference of international financial institutions. There are four parts, twenty chapters, twenty-six authors. They may develop literacy for the terminology. Most chapters have conclusions or recommendations. The web had PDFs and Google books has full content.

Counting Heads, David Marusek, 2005

This novel is a scifi cyberpunk mystery. There are three parts, forty-five chapters, and an epilogue. Chapters are numbered, e.g. up to 1.3 or 2.29. Part 3 adds days of the week to the titles up to Friday 3.13. It begins in first person for part 1 which was originally a short story. The year is 2092. There are a pair of main characters. Tech includes nanotech, clones, robotic insects, friendly AIs, wearable valet processors. holopresence conferences, and high velocity surface travel. HomCom is the initial antagonist. There is a realistic world. The rest of the parts are told in third person after forty years have passed. The point of view changes among several main characters. The antagonist may be an AI. A glossary would be appropriate. The title refers to heads for which the body can be replaced. A sequel was published, Mind Over Ship.

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Praxis Upheaval

Posted by cadsmith on May 15, 2010


Information layers seem to spiral as data doubles every year or so. This may find its way to storage structures for accessibility and analysis. In the meantime, semantics do heavy lifting, while users choose centricity, e.g. actor, method, device, network, or space, and match measures to media. Any location may resolve to surface, signal, transform, translation, filter or fractal. Recent links:

Visualization, VTK, Protovis, prefuse; 3D, Autodesk Inventor, camera, Gemvision; Robotics, Anybots telepresence; Socnets, OpenID Connect, OneSocialWeb, Udemy online courses; Translation, Google audio; Security, KHOBE shreds Windows walls,  Verizon cloud; Quantum atomic optical computing, location-based cryptography; Energy, EIA Annual Energy Outlook has a national energy modeling system (NEMS), and scenarios to 2035. smart grid, again; Space, Moon Zoo, multiverse; Psychology, Analyze Words twitter sentiment,  internet improves well-being; Documents of note: The Fate of the Semantic Web, Pew Research, 2010 (pdf), On the Essence of Truth, Martin Heidegger, 1943.

Book reviews:

Re-Designing Learning Contexts, Luckin 2010. This book concentrates on technological literacy for personal and collaborative education. Luckily, it was available for Kindle. Scholars are defining what knowledge is, and it is up to the participant to try to find improvements, learn from failure and synthesize resources. The author, an expert from the UK who will be keynoting the ICICTE conference, highlights interaction and presents the equivalent of a slideshow narrative on the status and needs of the learner. This follows previous work on learning outside of school, holistically within a lifetime. About four hundred publications are organized into nine chapters relating to three parts of background, ecology and future. Context is internalized enough to become independent of elements such as place, culture and technology. For example, Paul Dourish is significant for notion of embodied interaction. Historical approaches include information processing, behaviorism, constructivism, scaffolding in the form of hints or next steps, zone of collaboration, and cognition. Types of learners are supported by more able partners (MAPs). Many software solutions are discussed which emphasize combinations of discussion, tutorials, videos, multiple representations, visualization and simulation, distributed scaffolding, recognizing learner beliefs, collaboration and props such as toys. An ecology of resources model defines filter elements for knowledge and skills, tools and people, and environment. Case studies are distinguished by creation process (brainstorm, focus of attention, categorization, filters, resources, MAPs), relationships, and scaffolds. Interaction models structure conversation, scaffolding design, learner context, and locale and mobile frameworks. A practice example uses lesson plans, whiteboard, tablets and homework activities. Some of the web2.0 terms are used such as tagging and crowdsourcing. Links are given for resources, e.g. rixcentre.org which handles learning disabilities. An attempt to use http://www.autotutor.org appeared inconclusive since it did not seem to understand typed answers on well-known subjects, such as how the internet might be (re)designed, and hand-waving, e.g. to draw gravity wells to show how differently sized objects might respond to eachother, were not allowed. To be fair, the same word problem was completely incomprehensible to a cloud math engine so there is a ways to go for these approaches to be general purpose or compatible with other large scale efforts such as EarthGame.

The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves, Arthur 2009. This book presents a theory of technology which directs human life, is beneficial and results in economic arrangements and activities. It is alive in the sense of a coral reef, yet separate from incremental biology which may yet become technology. It involves combinatorial evolution shaped by demand, modularity, recursive structure, and mechanistic bootstrapping. Structures are deepened by subcomponents for performance, monitoring, adaptation, and reliability. The theory is derived from scientific evolution and self-correcting paradigms. It also drives economics which is non-deterministic. The result is physical, yet digitization is the currency. The needs arise from growth of society, support of tech itself, and fixes. Innovation tends to be nation-centric based on deep craft of local cultures. Technology is a means to fulfill a human purpose, the idea of use or programming of a phenomenon for some purpose and resultant cultural practices, components, devices and engineering principles and architecture. Standard engineering aims to solve problems. Invention occurs by mental association. Concepts are realized in physical form. Clusters of common theory form domains which can be categorized hierarchically. Innovation may involve redomaining, e.g. in economics. Solutions become components for further developments.
The reader can make some criticisms. When it comes to theories, testing and falsification of premises and claims are usually required. This one does not show the math nor discuss limits, e.g. due to scale or sustainability. It is predictive only in a causal sense since scientific instruments are a form of technology which discover new phenomena which result in new technologies. Human evolution includes all knowledge and activities, so any particular area, e.g. technology, may already be considered part of this. There are discussions elsewhere that global networks are more for communication than economics and may be prone to politicization. The ROI example of Columbus in the New World may actually be cautionary for indigenous natives. There are risks for controlled ownership by big corporations on one side or open-source and commons on the other. Discussion of robotics, or requirements for education or ethics, for example, would require additional sources.

The Grammar of Technology Development, edited by Tsubaki and others, 2008. The theme is methodologies for quantifying technology development. Idea is based on “The Grammar of Science” 1892 using statistics. A grammar is a description of approaches for selection of the most effective. Three parts provide a total of fourteen papers covering systematic modes, design of experiments and statistical methods. Digital engineering makes use of computer aided engineering, quality control, simulation, verification and validation. The technology development process can be modeled for interactions between virtual and real society. Systems science can also make use of intuition in micro-theories of knowledge creation which are several orders of magnitude better at information processing than verbalization and includes the collective unconscious. Spiral processes in a creative space use dimensions of objectivity, subjective, intersubjective, justification and reflection. Ecodesign is environmentally conscious and has compatible tools. Social networks show useful gaps in three types of communications: interactive, distributed, and soapbox. Simulation matches theoretical and actual conditions and tests the model, its own issues can be compensated for by calibration in the design of experiment. Measures for performance evaluation include hardware simulation, software simulation, and approximate analysis. Several case studies are shown for an example product, digital factory, web-legacy client-server system, and musical search by humming. Many of the articles introduce keywords for the statistical concepts used in that type of grammar and use figure and tables to illustrate the most significant data. This book was the result of a conference of several different authors so it is left to the reader to correlate the ideas. The case seems promising and the combined use will likely lead to additional efforts that can be evaluated for improvements or automation.

Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology, edited by Pearson and Young, 2002. Planning for the future involves significant emphasis on society, economics, and environment. These in turn depend upon development of technology to solve problems, lower costs, and use resources more efficiently. Somewhere along the line of familiarity with a single tool, science experience, and engineering, there is a general technology skill. As values and philosophy are revealed, there seem to be no clearcut definitions of exactly what an essential approach would be or how to recognize the better ones from many attempts. A question arises as to how to remedy this. Education is the usual answer and this then raises another issue of how to teach technology. This book centers around the notion of technology literacy, including capabilities, knowledge and ways of doing. The theme is nationalistic, though international attitudes are described. Some of the problems, e.g. lack of understanding of the electrical grid, have since had new solutions such as smart grid to compensate by automating some of the decision-making. This book is clearly written, formatted like a textbook with boxed summaries and reading lists. This is a subject which can be taken for granted only at peril since the ongoing changes in population, demographics, ideologies and climate seem to be increasing in complexity at faster rates over time. Free complete online preview at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10250.

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Posted by cadsmith on October 11, 2009

In order to add depth to a discussion of visualization, verification and validation, take a snapshot of 3D CAD. Digitized renditions of places, appliances and actors result in a natural interface that exploits user capacities for mobility, navigation, and prediction. Identification, position and metadata are features of the framework. Models may vary in definition, accuracy and manageability, but tend to benefit from the web trends of linking, collaboration and interoperability. A brisk pace of improvements adds user designs to more situations over time such as conference, games and science. Time itself is a parameter in this context since it can be represented as an axis, cycle, or movie-like special effects. It can alternatively be transformed into other mappings such as durations, derivatives, or distributions. Slices of depictions can be juxtaposed for comparison, interaction or animation. (Okay, okay, okay, the triplets theme is becoming trying.)

Familiar applications include architecture and vehicle manufacturing. Design costs are lower since versions can be exercised and discarded without waste. Users are watching more video and doing more drawing on tablets or touchscreens. They do photography on webcams or phones which also have built-in GPS and compass. Symbolism is second nature via avatars in virtual worlds and augmented reality. Graphics run locally or on distributed platforms using flash. CAD adds a degree of control to a world where surveillance seems to witness chaotically runaway effects, and invites efforts to find ways to turn more information into knowledge. Models themselves form a datawarehouse which can be used as reference. This is useful when the scales approach infinity, e.g. nano or cognitive. As consumers expect more 3D video, CAD branding becomes generally applicable.

Also see resource links 3D CAD.

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